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In India, eliminating tuberculosis isn't just a health issue — it's an economic one

Jorge Coarasa's picture



On February 1st, India’s finance minister presented the Union Budget for 2017-2018, and announced the government’s plan to eliminate tuberculosis (TB) by 2025. This is a welcome move. While ridding people of the burden of any disease is a worthy goal by itself, TB elimination provides perhaps one of the strongest cases for public intervention from an economic point of view.

All communicable diseases present what economists call externalities: infectious people can infect other people who in turn infect others and so on. In fact, economist Phillip Musgrove used TB in particular to illustrate this: “no victim of tuberculosis is likely to ignore the disease, so there is no problem of people undervaluing the private benefits of treatment. Rather, the cost of treatment--and the fact that they may feel better even though the disease has not been cured-- may lead people to abandon treatment prematurely, with bad consequences not only for themselves but for others. The rest of society therefore has an interest in treating those with tuberculosis, and assuming at least part of the cost.” Reducing TB incidence could generate benefits of $33 per dollar spent, prompting The Economist to put TB among their list of ‘no-brainers’. According to the Stop TB Partnership, ending TB globally could yield US$ 1.2 trillion overall economic return on investment.

Governance and accountability: What role for media?

BBC Media Action's picture
Politics is made of people. We need to be able to question our leaders so that we can hold them to account. How can media play a role in helping people improve governance and accountability? Follow the discussion below to find out!
 


Our panel
-
Angela Githitho-Muriithi, Country Director, Kenya, BBC Media Action
- Duncan Green, Senior Strategic Advisor, Oxfam GB
- Luis-Felipe Lopez-Calva, Co-Director, World Development Report 2017, World Bank
- Stephen King, Partner, Omidyar Network
- Thomas Hughes, Executive Director, Article 19+

The discussion was chaired by the BBC's Ritula Shah+
 

Weekly wire: The global forum

Darejani Markozashvili's picture

These are some of the views and reports relevant to our readers that caught our attention this week.

World Water Day 2017
Los Angeles Times
More than 5 million people in South Sudan do not have access to safe, clean water, compounding the country’s problems of famine and civil war, according to UNICEF. Even those South Sudanese who can find water spend much of their day hiking, fetching and carrying the containers of the precious fluid that is essential to life. As World Water Day approaches on March 22, nearly 27 million people do not have access to clean water in Somalia, South Sudan, northeastern Nigeria and Yemen. About 12% of the world population lacks clean drinking water, and water-related diseases account for 3.5 million deaths each year, more than car accidents and AIDS combined, according to the World Water Council.

World Happiness Report
Sustainable Development Solutions Network
The first World Happiness Report was published in April, 2012, in support of the UN High Level Meeting on happiness and well-being. Since then the world has come a long way. Increasingly, happiness is considered to be the proper measure of social progress and the goal of public policy. In June 2016 the OECD committed itself “to redefine the growth narrative to put people’s well-being at the center of governments’ efforts”. In February 2017, the United Arab Emirates held a full-day World Happiness meeting, as part of the World Government Summit. Now on World Happiness Day, March 20th, we launch the World Happiness Report 2017, once again back at the United Nations, again published by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network, and now supported by a generous three-year grant from the Ernesto Illy Foundation.

10 candid career questions with infrastructure & PPP professionals – Emmanuel Nyirinkindi

Emmanuel Nyirinkindi's picture



Editor's Note: 
Welcome to the “10 Candid Career Questions” series, introducing you to the infrastructure and PPP professionals who do the deals, analyze the data, and strategize on the next big thing. Each of them followed a different path into infra and/or PPP practice, and this series offers an inside look at their backgrounds, motivations, and choices. Each blogger receives the same 10 questions that tell their career story candidly and without jargon. We hope you will be surprised and inspired.

Incentivizing equality: Investment-led development as a win-win for all

Cecile Fruman's picture
As we celebrate Woman’s History Month this March, we must continue to push the envelope on operationalizing gender parity for our clients. In developing contexts, women are often concentrated in informal work, micro and small enterprises, or employed in the lower ends of the value chain in primary agriculture, light manufacturing, and tourism industries. A prime country example illustrating this trend is Bangladesh, where female labor force participation hovers around 57% and the ILO reports that 80-85% of labor in the booming ready-made garments industry is provided by women.  
 

The Lure of Data

Maya Brahmam's picture

There is a new tool TCdata360 that brings together multiple sources of data in a user-friendly way. It is designed around data for trade and competitiveness and the private sector. It includes data from a number of sources too, such as the World Bank, OECD, UN, and the World Economic Forum. Most interesting of all, it’s visual. Visual data can be used to build stories.

An interesting story draws an audience online, but you have to tell it quickly, as the time frames for stories are getting progressively shorter. On Vine, a six second story feels like a moment repeating itself endlessly. Dom Hoffman, the app’s creator told the New Yorker, “It feels like a moment that’s happening over and over again,” Hofmann said, “I think when people remember things in the past, they view those things on repeat.”

The Tribeca Film Festival started six-second films a few years ago. At the SXSW Film Festival this month, Google’s creative director, Ben Jones spoke about this topic in a panel called, "From Six Words to Six Seconds: How the New Age of Storytelling and Innovation Intersect."  (Urban legend has it that Ernest Hemingway published one of these six-word stories, “For Sale: baby shoes. Never worn.”)

How do we achieve sustained growth? Through human capital, and East Asia and the Pacific proves it

Michael Crawford's picture
Students at Beijing Bayi High School in China. Photo: World Bank


In 1950, the average working-age person in the world had  almost three years of education, but in East Asia and Pacific (EAP), the  average person had less than half that amount. Around this time, countries in  the EAP  region put themselves on a path that focused on growth  driven by human capital. They made significant and steady investments in  schooling to close the educational attainment gap with the rest of the world. While  improving their school systems, they also put their human capital to work in  labor markets. As a result, economic growth has been stellar: for four decades  EAP has grown at roughly twice the pace of the global average. What is more, no  slowdown is in sight for rising prosperity.

High economic growth and strong human capital accumulation  are deeply intertwined. In a recent paper, Daron Acemoglu and David Autor explore  the way skills and labor markets interact: Human capital is the central  determinant of economic growth and is the main—and very likely the only—means  to achieve shared growth when technology is changing quickly and raising the  demand for skills. Skills promote productivity and growth, but if there are not  enough skilled workers, growth soon chokes off. If, by contrast, skills are abundant and  average skill-levels keep rising, technological change can drive productivity  and growth without stoking inequality.

The numbers are in: Water is key to poverty reduction and health

Guangzhe CHEN's picture
Celebrating World Water Day with the World Bank

Today, on World Water Day, we are humbled by the fact that over 663 million people on the planet still live without access to safe drinking water; 2.4 billion people lack access to basic sanitation services, such as toilets or latrines. With these challenges persisting around the world despite decades of hard work in the water and snatiation sectors, are we at a point where we need to take a step back from current solutions and practices and do business differently?
 
The new Water Supply, Sanitation, and Hygiene Poverty Diagnostic (WASH PD) initiative suggests exactly that.
 
New findings from the WASH PD initiative (led by the World Bank Water Global Practice in collaboration with Poverty, Governance, and Health, Nutrition, and Population) for the first time advances our understanding in a systematic manner of the relationship between poverty and WASH at the country level. Our deep analysis of 18 countries—across six regions—provides us with new evidence of realities that must be acknowledged, and shows without a doubt that we must work together across sectors if we are to find solutions with sustained impacts on the ground.

In China, conserving the past helps the poor build a brighter future

Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez's picture
How cultural heritage and sustainable tourism help reduce poverty
 
China has seen a booming tourism industry during the last few decades, thanks to a fast-developing economy and growing disposable personal income. In 2015 alone, the travel and tourism sector contributed to 7.9% of China’s GDP, and 8.4% of the country’s total employment. Not surprisingly, cultural heritage sites were among the most popular tourist destinations.

But beyond the well-known Great Wall and Forbidden City, many cultural heritage sites are located in the poorer, inland cities and provinces of the country. If managed sustainably, tourism in these areas can serve as a unique opportunity to help local communities—especially ethnic minorities, youth, and women—find jobs, grow incomes, and improve livelihoods.
 
“[Sustainable tourism] is not only the conservation of the cultural assets that are very important for the next generations to come, but, also, it’s the infrastructure upgrading, it’s the housing upgrading, and it is the social inclusion to really preserve the ethnic minorities’ culture and values – it is an interesting cultural package that is very valuable for countries around the world,” says Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez, a Senior Director of the World Bank.
 
To help reduce poverty and inequality in China’s lagging regions, the World Bank has committed to a long-term partnership with China on cultural heritage and sustainable tourism—with the Bank’s largest program of this kind operating around 20 projects across the country. These projects have supported local economic development driven by cultural tourism.
 
“Over the years, the program has helped conserve over 40 cultural heritage sites, and over 30 historic urban neighborhoods, towns, and villages,” according to Judy Jia, a Beijing-based Urban Analyst.
  
Watch a video to learn from Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez (@Ede_WBG) and Judy Jia how cultural heritage and sustainable tourism can promote inclusive growth and boost shared prosperity in China, and what other countries can learn from this experience.



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